Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Pros and Cons of Laws Against Defamation - 1193 Words

During the history defamation has developed in two ways; slander and libel. The law leading slander focused on oral statements and libel on written ones. By the 1500 English printers had to be licensed and had to be linked to the government as by that time it was believed that written word had possibility to give a risk to political strength. However when the times passed the law progressed and these days freedom of expression is a foundation of democratic rights and freedoms therefore freedom of speech is necessary in making possible democracy to work and community involvement in decision-making. When defamation comes to practice and people feels threatened with a defamation suit, the biggest focus is on whether or not there is†¦show more content†¦Even though this is not that common in United Kingdom but it is worth keeping in our mind. Privacy laws quite often slow down investigative reporting aimed at exposing corrupt and illegal practices. Privacy laws, while important in protecting the private affairs of individuals, should not be misused to deny discussion of matters of public concern. One of the most recent cases was News of the World scandal where News of the World journalist Dan Evans and private investigator Glenn Mulcaire for misuse of private information and breach of confidence. Progress has been made in recent years in terms of securing respect for the right to freedom of expression. Efforts have been made to implement this right through specially constructed regional mechanisms. New opportunities are emerging for greater freedom of expression with the internet and worldwide satellite broadcasting. I a case Ferdinand v MGN Ltd was said: â€Å"The action for misuse of private information has grown out of the older equitable claim for breach of confidence. Breach of confidence in its original form does still have a life of its own and may be relevant, for instance, where the Claimant is not in a position to invoke Article 8.† The claim has been dismissed. Nonetheless new threats are emerging such as global media monopolies and pressures on independent media outlets. The freedom to impartShow MoreRelatedAnalyse and Assess the Pros and Cons of the Libel Defences of Justification and Fair Comment1644 Words   |  7 Pagesthe pros and cons of the libel defences of justification and fair comment with reference to a minimum of three case studies Libel law in England is incredibly tough, so much so, that if found to be liable of a defamatory statement, ‘a statement which lowers someone in the eyes of reasonable people...’ [Quinn 2009: 210] the consequences can be very costly to both the journalist themselves and their newspapers and therefore it is very important for the defences of defamation to beRead MoreEssay on Pros and Cons of Censorship: Controlling Media and Ideas769 Words   |  4 Pagesdebates on whether censorship has truly been a restraint of expression, imposed to protect people from themselves and to others, or just, for the most part, futile in this day and age. I believe these are all valid reasons for why censorship has its pros and cons, but nonetheless is rather pointless. Censorship is valuable when it comes to hiding sensitive military information since it can be used by the enemy. Some might say censorship is absolutely need in protecting your nation, which falls under militaryRead MoreThe Media s Effect On Social Change916 Words   |  4 PagesThe next way that the media can hinder social change through the law, and perhaps the most problematic, is the role that the media takes in protecting large businesses. While the media highlights cases of extreme abuse of the system or people’s rights, they seem to stay silent when it it comes to exposing the abuses of their investors and other wealthy and powerful interests. A perfect example of this concept is with the role that large banks and investors played in the 2008 financial collapse. LargeRead MoreThe Rights Of An International Human Right1239 Words   |  5 PagesIn May 2014, the European Court of Justice ruled that EU citizens have a â€Å"right to be forgotten,† that they could request that search engines remove links to pages deemed private, even if the pages themselves remain on the Internet. Originally this law was planned in 1995 but called differently and didn’t have that much effect until today. The issue has arisen from desires of people to â€Å"determine the development of their life in an autonomous way, without being perpetually or periodically stigmatizedRead MoreDrug Testing in the Workplace1281 Words   |  6 Pagesto the manufacturing company. I. Administering a drug and alcohol policy can be challenging. A. The company must comply with State and Federal laws when administering the drug and alcohol policy. B. The company must make sure the implementation of the test is done in a uniform manner. C. Some employees may bring law suits against the employer for a variety of violations. D. Employers have to pay a collection site to administer the test and have the specimen sent to a laboratoryRead MoreEssay on Employment Law1370 Words   |  6 PagesEmployment Law The purpose of this paper is to analyze a specific, hypothetical employment situation encountered and to include the information regarding employment conflicts, questions, grievances, lawsuits, etc., in terms of how the situation was handled or resolved.  Ã‚  Employment conflicts are a constant issue everyday in any organization; it is how you handle them both legally and professionally that counts. Employment Law Situation In this situationRead MoreRuling Out School Prayer1276 Words   |  6 PagesSchool prayer ‘infringes the Constitutional rights of others† (Yahoo.com). Every student has a right to refuse to participate in prayer, as well as participate in prayer Brock 2 also. But when it is forced on them, they goes against the â€Å"Freedom of Religion† clause of the constitution. It would be a violation of the establishment clause if the government was behind one religion (Highlights of Pending Senate-School Prayer Proposals 2). Other religions professed that the allegedRead MoreTitle Vii, the Civil Rights Act of 19643095 Words   |  13 PagesTitle VII, The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Abstract Under federal law, an employer usually cannot make work-related decisions based upon an employees religion. This means, that generally an employer has to give their workers time off from work to practice their faith and celebrate religious holidays. Employers may face legal issues and be fined if they refuse time off without a good reason. Time offRead MoreEssay about What School Vouchers Are2364 Words   |  10 Pagesdollars, private schools would be filled with the well-to-do and middle-class students and a handful of the best, most motivated students from inner cities†(Anti-Defamation League, 2001). The public schools would therefore have few funds left to help educate the poorest children and children that were not private school material (Anti-Defamation League, 2001). Competition Between Public and Private Schools It has been hypothesized that vouchers will make public schools better by promoting competitionRead MorePros And Cons Of Hate Speech1416 Words   |  6 Pagesdistention among a nation? Should it be acceptable to destroy symbolic icons on which American history was founded? Is it permissible to single out individuals with harmful actions or words because their beliefs don’t line up with our own? The pros and cons of these questions must be examined in order to determine whether or not â€Å"Hate Speech† should or should not be considered a crime. 123 To live in a country where liberties are so readily available is a privilege. The founding fathers came to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Divorce and Christianity Essay - 552 Words

Screams fill the room to a point of no return, as the walls hold back the fierce fighting between the two. A young boy sits shaking in the corner not knowing what to do, or where to go as he watches the battle continue to fire, hoping this battle does not reach the point of no return. As the little boy watches on only imaging his memories of the last and hoping for the end, suddenly a loud bang fills the house and the little boy notices his father is gone once again. This same tragedy happens in many Christian homes across the world as many parents argue until the point of violence. However, should a couple stay truthful to their commitment to their partner, community, and their religion or should they sin in there yearn for happiness?†¦show more content†¦In the Christian religion, there are two basic laws allowing divorce without the commitment of sin, infidelity and marriage to a nonbeliever whom has abandoned the commitment. However, in today’s society divorce has become a very common thing, as people decide to split part in their many marital dissolutions, and only one of these are considered to be a top five reasons why married couples actually divorce. Furthermore, infidelity or parting upon religious conversions only take upon circumstances of high sin in the views of the Christian God, rather than depicting compelling rational views that affect couples in everyday life. I believe that divorce is derived from many different reasons that may be controllable and uncontrollable. Although I do not believe, divorce is the only options for a couple I think they should weigh their options very clearly for a lengthened period to make sure that they have not made a mistake. I also believe that Christian laws for divorce are very detrimental, they do not allow for many other reason that cause divorce. Furthermore, I believe that one can only be held accountable for their own actions and that is why marriage is depicted off faith. However, I think Christianity should broaden their thoughts on divorce, as I do not believe that God would command that his followers live an unhappy life. In conclusion, the Christian religion takes in very few accounts for the many motives leading to divorce without theShow MoreRelatedMarriage And Divorce : Christianity And Islam1241 Words   |  5 PagesMarriage and Divorce According to The First Letter of St. Paul to the Corinthians, marriage and divorce are two concepts of life that are sentimental to the entire nature and progress of human life. Whereas in The Koran, marriage is something that is done for the fulfillment of what God intended for man to do in the world. In both religions, which is Christianity and Islam, marriage is an acceptance that has to be done, but under a will from the humanity. Both Christianity and Islam practice marriageRead More Cause and Effect Essay - Christianity Causes Divorce727 Words   |  3 PagesCause and Effect Essay - Christianity Causes Divorce â€Å"Bible Belt Couples ‘Put Asunder’ More,† the New York Times proclaimed on May 21 of this year: â€Å"The divorce rate in many parts of the Bible Belt is roughly 50% above the national average.† So much for the notion that secularism is to blame for the decline of traditional families, among other frequently lamented social ills. Apparently, in a least a few states, the divorce rate correlates to an excess of piety, not the absence of it. WhatRead MoreChristianity And Buddhism : A Nation Of Many Religions Essay844 Words   |  4 Pagesin their life, so they relay themselves on religion. Christianity and Buddhism are two ancient religions which both have being on earth for a long time. Both religions are based on the teachings of one man. Moreover, they have many similarities as well as differences. They both have a place of adoration. For Christians is a church, chapel, cathedral, and may others. For Buddhism is a monastery, nunneries, pagodas, and temples. Both Christianity as Buddhism believe on the adoration of something, whichRead MoreMeaning of Marriage in Different Cultures1737 Words   |  7 PagesFurthermore, like both Christianity and Judaism, Islam is strict on the concept of chastity. It is the element of staying pure. Seeing as marriage in Islam is concealed with intercourse, which is evident from the root of the world in Arabic meaning marriage. The Arabic of word Nikah can be translated to marriage and sexual intercourse. We see in Islam a marriage being very mutual, we see the concept of equality among the couple. This is advocated when looking into divorce in Islam. Divorce is not prohibitedRead MoreDivorce And Its Effect On Society Essay1648 Words   |  7 PagesHalf of all marriages end in divorce. That means that between a person and their closest friend, o ne of them is likely to get a divorce (Stanton 3). That’s a shocking and scary statistic since divorce is so unhealthy for everyone involved. Sociology’s view, religion’s view, and even the effect of psychology all point to one end, divorce is not beneficial. Divorce is a topic that has been widely silenced because it has rocked so many people’s lives. A 50 percent divorce rate is a huge increase of whatRead MoreEssay about Atheism1742 Words   |  7 Pagesbeast-like god, one only needs to look at the caliber of people who say they serve him. They are always of two classes: fools and hypocrites†(Jefferson). Atheism is the belief that God does not exist and Judaism believes in only a unitary God and Christianity believes in the Trinity of God. This natural progression might be thought of as the stair steps to truth, but whose truth is the real question we need to answer, and I can assure you that it cannot be answered in a mere 8 pages. Disregard you’reRead MoreStaying in a Bad Marriage967 Words   |  4 Pagesmarriages, researcher Critelli (2012) provides one main factor that explains why many women stay in those marriages. This factor is based upon different religions, leadership obligations, and the interpretat ions of these particular religions. Christianity is a well-known religion that often includes various denominations. Four denominations that will be discussed within this paper are Catholic, Orthodox, Lutheran, and Methodist. These denominations have a wide range of approaches in relation toRead MoreConstantine And Empress Helen Their Impact On Christianity1479 Words   |  6 PagesTopic: Constantine and Empress Helena: Their Impact on Christianity -Who was Constantine?: Constantine was believed to be born on February 22, either in 272 or 273 AD. The exact date and year is not definite. He was the son of Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus (mainly known as Constantius Chlorus) and Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta (mainly known as Saint Helena). His father was an officer of the army, and his mother was an inn keeper’s daughter. His father later divorced his motherRead MoreMedea As A Good Moral Life856 Words   |  4 Pagessimilar to the ancient Judism and early Christianity. In ancient Greece, marriage was supposed to be monogamous and was for procreation. There were very few exceptions to this law. Marriage laws in ancient were simple. â€Å"Women became legal wards of their husbands†. (Martin) â€Å"The man needed to keep her dowry in tack in case of divorce†. (Martin) Divorcing one mate was simple and common. Divorce was more a means of power, rather than law. (Martin) Divorce had little stigma that wa s later institutionalizedRead MoreThree Main Religions in the Continent of Asia907 Words   |  4 Pagesrituals and ceremonies involved in Jewish religious practice. The main Jewish symbols are, the Star of David, and, the Menorah. Womens role is very limited in Southwest Asia. Women were rarely in the forefront of public life. A wife could never divorce her husband but she could be divorced by her husband. Women were less important than men during biblical times, however, men had to give women clothes, food, and sexual interactions. Women prayed separately from men because women used to not be able

Healthy Living Free Essays

Ms. Black Anat-6 21 March 15, 2013 Healthy Living Many factors affect your health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age, but you can make changes to your lifestyle. We will write a custom essay sample on Healthy Living or any similar topic only for you Order Now This book includes a population health approach and focuses on the various environments and settings which influence healthy living, such as nutrition, personal care and hygiene, physical fitness home environments. Both physical activity and healthy eating are essential to good health throughout life, to increase resiliency and to protect against disease and disability. They are needed to lower the risk of chronic diseases and promote optimal health. In children, sufficient levels of physical activity and healthy eating are essential for healthy growth and development. Firstly, by choosing healthy eating habit, people will gain many rewards. To have good nutrition, people should reduce the amount of fat and in particular, the amount of saturated fat. People should increase the intake of fibre-rich, starchy foods, such as bread, potatoes, pasta and rice by half as much again, reduce the average salt intake by around one-third, and increase the amount of fish eaten to at least two portions each week, one of which should be an oily fish. Besides that, practicing good personal hygiene is smart for two reasons. First, it helps to prevent people from catching and spreading illness and disease. Second, it helps people feel good about themselves and their body. Then, being physically fitness not only helps people live healthy in lives, it also helps people live longer. The best way to keep physical activity and exercise a permanent part of one’s life is to make it fun and enjoyable. Finally, all of the issues that evolve out of the interaction between people and the environment fall under the umbrella of environment health. This book discusses the many different risks that threaten the environment as well as ways to protect the environment and those who live in it. How to cite Healthy Living, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

How does Les Murray use sound features to convey the heroism of Bill Tuckett Essay Example

How does Les Murray use sound features to convey the heroism of Bill Tuckett Essay Les Murrays Morse is a poem about Bill Tuckett and his heroic surgery, however through the effective use of sound techniques several levels of meaning are created; of the Morse code and how poetry is dying out. Les Murray emphasizes throughout the poem isolation, Morse code and conveys the heroism of Bill Tuckett using plosives, rhyme and rhythm. One of the sound features used to convey the heroism of Bill Tuckett is plosives. Les Murray crafts Morse into a poem with words that is interpreted in more than one way. Plosives such as c, k, t and p sound like tapping noises, very much like that of Morse code. To the reader this link to Morse code is very entertaining because the constant tapping such as the ck and tt of Tuckett and the p and t of patient. This evokes a positive atmosphere; one to support the heroism of Bill Tuckett conveyed through this humorous tone. Furthermore Les Murray uses plosives in pluck and epoch. These are words that are rarely used in this age are considered archaic which in use matches the era of Bill Tuckett. This adds realism and humour to Morse. This realism emphasizes the isolation of the area and how there is nobody except Bill Tuckett to do the surgery which increases the heroism of Bill Tuckett. Plosives also are very short syllables which speed up Morse evoking an urgent atmosphere. Les Murray conveys the urgency to give the effect of Bill Tuckett trying to quickly send Morse to others. Even though he is a hero because of the surgery, his fast sending of Morse has made a hero is Morse as well. We will write a custom essay sample on How does Les Murray use sound features to convey the heroism of Bill Tuckett specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on How does Les Murray use sound features to convey the heroism of Bill Tuckett specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on How does Les Murray use sound features to convey the heroism of Bill Tuckett specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The plosives in Morse convey heroism through the tapping noise, being archaic and the urgency. Another of the sound features is rhyme which conveys the heroism of Bill Tuckett through isolation, urgency and entertainment. Les Murray uses some assonance in slit but slit and razor blade portraying dark images of horror and evoking a negative atmosphere. However the words that rhyme end in plosives like lack luck, and pluck which creates an echo. The echoing of sounds is very entertaining to the reader which evokes a positive atmosphere. The contrast between the positive atmosphere and the negative atmosphere reduces the intensity of the horror which conveys Bill as being less horrible through is horrifying actions of the surgery but instead very heroic for what he has done. In all lines of Morse they end in a plosive except for the line which ends in gone. Les Murray uses this to emphasize the line Morse keys have mostly gone which is suggesting that Morse or even poetry is being used less and less. Les Murray is emphasizing the point to convey the importance of the theme and show that since it is running out and he is using Morse effectively, Bill Tuckett is heroic. Rhyme in Morse conveys the heroism of Bill Tuckett through the pleasure of rhyme and his Les Murrayss use of Morse. Heroism is conveyed by Bill Tuckett through rhythm. Morse is made up of short syllables and long syllables. Les Murray creates the effect of short corresponding to the dit of Morse code as well as the long syllables corresponding to the dah of Morse code which is entertaining to the reader because there are several levels of meaning. Because it is entertaining this reiterates the positive atmosphere therefore emphasizing the Positivity of the heroism of Bill Tuckett. A pause is used in Stanza one where there are lots of commas between heat, glare and dust to portray imagery of a difficult environment. Les Murray is emphasizing how its hard for Bill Tuckett to cope and conveys heroism. Throughout Stanza two there is a lack of pauses as there is no full stops therefore evoking an urgent atmosphere. This urgency reiterates Bill Tuckett sending Morse and conveys Bill Tuckett as being heroic. Rhythm in Morse conveys the heroism of Bill Tuckett through the syllables corresponding to Morse code and pauses conveying the difficult environment. In Morse, Les Murray conveys the heroism of Bill Tuckett effectively through rhythm, rhyme and plosives which portray several levels of meaning. Themes of isolation, the loss of art; poetry and Morse are conveyed through the urgent and positive atmosphere. Les Murray conveys to the reader that the art of poetry is important and should be recognised and appreciated.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Abortion misc15 essays

Abortion misc15 essays Abortion: Just Another Word For Murder On January 22, 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court, in two separate decisions, Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton, declared that Congress and the states had to adopt a policy on abortion. Since then, abortion has been one of the most controversial issues in our country today. Every time the subject of abortion is raised, the same question always comes up: should people have the right to terminate an unborn child? The answer is no. No person should have the right to terminate an unborn child which has not yet had the chance to live, no matter what the reason is. Abortion is the termination of an alive, unborn child, which can experience pain through the process of an abortion. There is no need to have an abortion when these children could be put up for adoption instead of being aborted. Abortion is the termination of alive, unborn children. How can a person decide just when an unborn fetus becomes a person with constitutional rights. Many people disagree when a fetus becomes an actual person, but the truth is that a fetus becomes a person at the time of conception. An article entitled Pro-lofe and pro-choice? Yes says that, From the moment of conception, the fetus is endowed with all the genetic information that will enable its development into a full human person (Church 108). Technology has advanced very much in the past twenty years and now with the aid of medical technology and the science of fetology, doctors can prove that a fetus is an actual person as early as thirteen weeks of growth (Meyer 62-64). These facts only help to prove that a fetus is an actual person, who deserves the chance to be born. Contrary to belief, a fetus can actually feel pain. The observation of abortions on ultrasound have been very disturbing. So disturbing, that many abortion doctors who have seen the procedure, refuse to participate in abortions again (Meyer 62-64). An...

Monday, March 2, 2020

5 Tips for Improving Reading Comprehension

5 Tips for Improving Reading Comprehension The idea that you either read for pleasure or for learning is misleading. It is, of course, possible to do both. Still, you shouldnt necessarily approach academic reading the same way you approach a beach read. In order to read and comprehend a book or article for school, you need to be much more intentional and strategic. Understand Genres and Themes In most reading tests, the student is asked to read a passage and predict what might happen next. Prediction is a common reading comprehension strategy. The purpose of this strategy is to make sure you’re able to infer information from the clues in the text. Here’s a passage to clarify this point: Clara gripped the handle of the heavy glass pitcher and lifted it from the refrigerator shelf. She didn’t understand why her mother thought she was too young to pour her own juice. As she backed away carefully, the rubber seal of the refrigerator door caught the lip of the glass pitcher, which caused the slippery handle to slip from her hand. As she watched the pitcher crash into a thousand pieces, she saw the figure of her mother appear in the kitchen doorway. What do you think will happen next? We could infer that Clara’s mother reacts angrily, or we might guess that the mother bursts into laughter. Either answer would be sufficient since we have so little information to go on. But if I told you that this passage was an excerpt from a thriller, that fact might impact your answer. Similarly, if I told you this passage came from a comedy, youd make a very different prediction. It is important to know something about the type of text youre reading, whether it is a nonfiction or a work of fiction. Understanding the genre of a book helps you make predictions about the action- which helps you comprehend it. Read With Tools Any time you read for the sake of learning, you should be reading actively.  To do this, youll need some extra tools. For example, you can use a pencil to make annotations in the margins of your text without doing any permanent damage to the book. Another good tool for active reading is a pack of sticky notes. Use your notes to jot down thoughts, impressions, predictions, and questions as you read. A highlighter, on the other hand, is usually not as effective. Highlighting is a relatively passive act when compared to note-taking even though it may seem like you are engaging with the text by highlighting it. However, highlighting during a first read can be a good way to mark  passages that you want to revisit. But if a passage impresses you enough to highlight it, you should always indicate  why it impresses you, whether on the first or second read.   Develop New Vocabulary   Its a no-brainer that you should take the time to look up new and unfamiliar words as you read. But its important to make a log book of those new words, and revisit them long after youve finished reading that book. The more we study a subject, the more it sinks in. Be sure to keep a log book of new words and visit it often. Analyze the Title (And Subtitles) The title is often the last thing to be adjusted once a writer has finished writing. Therefore, it may be a good idea to consider the title as a final step after reading.   A writer will labor hard and long on an article or book, and often the writer uses many of the same strategies that a good reader uses. Writers edit the text and identify themes, make predictions, and annotate.   Many writers are surprised by the twists and turns that come from the creative process.   Once a text is completed, the writer may reflect on the true message or purpose as a final step and come up with a new title. This means you can use the title as a clue to help you understand the message or purpose of your text, after youve had some time to soak it all in.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Human Resource Assignment (Hospitality Industry) Essay

Human Resource Assignment (Hospitality Industry) - Essay Example In other words, the service sector can be termed as hospitality sector (Simmering, 2006). One of the most important aspects to remember is that the service or hospitality industry deal with selling customer satisfaction and it is not an easy task. Training is the responsibility of the Human Resource Management. Additionally, they also take care of employee recruitment and make sure that employees' abilities are precisely and favourably nurtured to best suite the companies' requirement. However, today several such industries lack proper training resulting in failures. This paper analysis the reasons for the success and failures of training programs in the hospitality industry. Customer satisfaction is the main job of any hospitality industry. Hospitals are a part of this industry and make sure that the patients are given at most care and support for recovery. Aviation industry is involved in flying passengers with all comforts to their destinations. Similarly, hotel's don't sell rooms or a place to sleep rather they sell customer fulfilment and comfort. Food industry or a restaurant is not just the business of selling food, but they sell service, luxury and comfort. It doesn't matter what service or hospitality industry, customer satisfaction is of great importance (Bacal & Associates, N.D.). There are several reasons as to why the training aspects are not taken up with all seriousness. Employees in the hospitality arena oppose or dislike training because they believe that they are already trained. Most of them believe they already have the requisite skills to do their job reasonably well (BNET, 1998). In recent decades the attitudes and awareness to training has changed to a great extent. Historically, training applied more to manual and enhanced the trade skills through apprenticeships. With the help of current technology the training skills to a great extent has developed and improved to cover all aspects of modern business and industry. There are three broad approaches according to Armstrong (1999 Cited in cookeryonline.com) to training. The first one is about the adoption of lassie-faire approach believing that employees will find out what to do for themselves or through others. For instance if skill shortages were to be encountered, they would set right the circumstances by poaching staff from other organisations that invest in training. In a second type of organizations, they may invest in training in good times, i.e. when they have enough funds, but in bad times training budgets will be the first to be cut. Thirdly organisations that take on a positive training philosophy do so because they recognize the fact that they live in a world where competitive advantage is achieved by having higher quality people. This goal cannot be achieved if proper investment in developing the skills and competencies of their employees is not taken up. Training is the practical move toward rather than reactive approach designating t raining as a permanent and on-going process within the organisation. There are several factors that need to be considered for any company to design an effective training programme. For instance, it is said that training